The iPhone's built-in Voice Memos app has been a useful addition ever since it was bundled with iPhone OS 3.0. It lets you record audio snippets and play them back later, and you can send them to yourself or others using the built-in email sharing feature.
It's not entirely clear how to use the Voice Memos app though, or how to send a voice recording to someone via email - let alone figure out how to transfer a voice recording to your computer.
Here are the steps for 1) recording audio with the Voice Memos app on your iPhone, 2) sharing those audio snippets using email, and 3) transferring those audio files to your computer:
1. Record audio with the Voice Memos iPhone app:
Open the Voice Memos app on your iPhone and tap the button on the left to start recording. You can talk into the microphone or place it near what you're trying to record.
Tap the button on the bottom right to stop recording, and tap it again to see a list of voice memos that you've recorded.
2. Share recorded audio clips using email:
Tap the arrow next to each audio clip to view options for sharing that clip.
Tap the "Share" button and select "Email" to send the audio clip as an email to yourself or someone else.
3. Transfer recorded audio clips to your computer:
If you have a large audio recording, you won't be able to share it using email. For example, the audio clip I recorded above was for over 50 minutes and was about 24 MB in size - far too large for email, and my iPhone wouldn't let me send it.
In this case, when the audio file is too large to share using email, then you'll need to transfer the audio file to your computer using iTunes.